First Level Word Categories

In the Simple Ontology, each class, and relationship type is derived from the keyword based definitions in the Simple Dictionary. The result is an implicit, inheritance-based hierarchical ontology comprised of Types, Contexts and Relations in which no manual (or arbitrary) classification is required, since all classifications and relations are derived from the definitions of the words themselves.

Types include: Acts, Animals, Descriptions and Measures, Events, Objects, Organizations, Places, Roles and Substances. Within these nine classes, or categories, all words in English can be classified.


Examples: say, write

SAY = Use words to give INFORMATION

Announce = SAY something to a group of people

State = SAY something happened

Imply = SAY something without saying it happened

Accuse = SAY someone has done something you did not want them to do

Admit = SAY something happened even though you did not want it to happen


WRITE = Put words or numbers in a document to give INFORMATION;

Accordingly, all of the children of say (announce, state, imply, accuse, and admit) are related to all of the children of write (compose, draft, scribble, sign) since all are used to give information, a context.


Examples: amphibians, birds, fish, mammals (cats, dogs, people), reptiles

Mammal=an ANIMAL with a backbone and usually fur

Dog = a larger MAMMAL with four legs that lives with people

Cat = a smaller MAMMAL with four legs that lives with people


Descriptions and Measures

Behavioural: curious, friendly, patient

Emotional: angry, sad, excited

Color: red, white, blue

Size: large, small, enormous

Weight: heavy, light, obese

Position: in, on, out,

Amount: some, a lot, many, volume

Distance: near, far, height, width, depth

Sequence: before, after

Time: now, then, future, past, age (young, old, elderly), soon

Speed: fast, slow, rapid

Desirability: good, bad, great, satisfactory



Examples: accident, birth, death, graduation, marriage

Graduation = An event in which you get a document that says you have STUDIED and LEARNED about one or more subjects

Accordingly, the word graduate is implicitly grouped with the word school (a place you study and learn new information), because both share the keywords study and learn.


Examples: clothing, furniture, plants, vehicles

Vehicle group (sample):

Type-Subtype Relation: Vehicle-Auto-Car-Sport-Electric


Examples (by type/context): business, education, government, sports

Sports group (sample)




Examples: (by type/context): business, education, geography, government, sports, space

Geography: continents, countries, states, cities, boroughs, neighbourhoods

Space group: galaxies, solar systems, planets


Examples (by context): School (principal, teacher, student), legal (attorney, defendant, judge), sports (coach, player, referee)

School group (sample):



Examples: beverages (alcohol, soda, juice, milk), chemical (oxygen, hydrogen, air, water), plant (seeds, grass, vegetables)

Plant group (sample):

Plant – Vegetable – Fruit – Apple – Granny Smith

First Level Word Relations




A car is a type of vehicle, has wheels, an engine or motor and seats, and takes people places.

The terms is, has and does point toward a large number of different of relationships, each a form of one of these three principal types. In order to understand this, it is easiest to view it in a tree.

Tree Based Example of Word Relations

There are a number of words that describe people’s behaviour. These include ambitious, brave, calm, among others.