First Level Word Categories
In the Simple Ontology, each class, and relationship type is derived from the keyword based definitions in the Simple Dictionary. The result is an implicit, inheritance-based hierarchical ontology comprised of Types, Contexts and Relations in which no manual (or arbitrary) classification is required, since all classifications and relations are derived from the definitions of the words themselves.
Types include: Acts, Animals, Descriptions and Measures, Events, Objects, Organizations, Places, Roles and Substances. Within these nine classes, or categories, all words in English can be classified.
Examples: say, write
SAY = Use words to give INFORMATION
Announce = SAY something to a group of people
State = SAY something happened
Imply = SAY something without saying it happened
Accuse = SAY someone has done something you did not want them to do
Admit = SAY something happened even though you did not want it to happen
WRITE = Put words or numbers in a document to give INFORMATION;
Accordingly, all of the children of say (announce, state, imply, accuse, and admit) are related to all of the children of write (compose, draft, scribble, sign) since all are used to give information, a context.
Examples: amphibians, birds, fish, mammals (cats, dogs, people), reptiles
Mammal=an ANIMAL with a backbone and usually fur
Dog = a larger MAMMAL with four legs that lives with people
Cat = a smaller MAMMAL with four legs that lives with people
Descriptions and Measures
Behavioural: curious, friendly, patient
Emotional: angry, sad, excited
Color: red, white, blue
Size: large, small, enormous
Weight: heavy, light, obese
Position: in, on, out,
Amount: some, a lot, many, volume
Distance: near, far, height, width, depth
Sequence: before, after
Time: now, then, future, past, age (young, old, elderly), soon
Speed: fast, slow, rapid
Desirability: good, bad, great, satisfactory
Examples: accident, birth, death, graduation, marriage
Graduation = An event in which you get a document that says you have STUDIED and LEARNED about one or more subjects
Accordingly, the word graduate is implicitly grouped with the word school (a place you study and learn new information), because both share the keywords study and learn.
Examples: clothing, furniture, plants, vehicles
Vehicle group (sample):
Type-Subtype Relation: Vehicle-Auto-Car-Sport-Electric
Examples (by type/context): business, education, government, sports
Sports group (sample)
Examples: (by type/context): business, education, geography, government, sports, space
Geography: continents, countries, states, cities, boroughs, neighbourhoods
Space group: galaxies, solar systems, planets
Examples (by context): School (principal, teacher, student), legal (attorney, defendant, judge), sports (coach, player, referee)
School group (sample):
Examples: beverages (alcohol, soda, juice, milk), chemical (oxygen, hydrogen, air, water), plant (seeds, grass, vegetables)
Plant group (sample):
Plant – Vegetable – Fruit – Apple – Granny Smith
First Level Word Relations
A car is a type of vehicle, has wheels, an engine or motor and seats, and takes people places.
The terms is, has and does point toward a large number of different of relationships, each a form of one of these three principal types. In order to understand this, it is easiest to view it in a tree.
Tree Based Example of Word Relations
There are a number of words that describe people’s behaviour. These include ambitious, brave, calm, among others.