The Simple Relational Dictionary


The Simple Relational Dictionaryuses a uniform, hierarchical classification system to label, define and relate 100,000 of the most frequently used word senses in English. The result is an inheritance based ontology of the English language which serves as the foundation of a language understanding and generation system called Associative Semantics™.

Words in the Simple system function as the equivalent of chemical elements in the Periodic Table of Elements and combine with one another to form the equivalent of molecules - word senses - depending on their valences. And like the chemical elements, each word has a uniform set of properties (both semantic and grammatical) that determine the ways in which it can combine with other words.

Certain members of the restricted set defining vocabulary function as genus words and parent of large numbers of other words in the system. These genus words function as the roots of the word trees that comprise the system and that users see. This creates an implicit taxonomy of the English language wherein, for example, a genus word like feel serves as the parent of angry, sad, happy and scared, each of which is in turn defined by the word feel and which also serves as a parent and keyword to number of related childern as shown below:


o Angry irritated, frustrated, mad, furious

o Sad unhappy, depressed, miserable, down

o Happy delighted, joyful, pleased, jubilant

o Scared frightened, terrified, startled, worried



angry adjective how you feel when you want to yell at someone: He is angry at her because she lied to him. | Students are angry about plans to close their school.

annoyed adjective a little angry about something that is not very important: Someone interrupted her, and she looked annoyed.| I sometimes get annoyed with her when she criticizes me.

irritated adjective a little angry, because something keeps happening: I was starting to feel irritated by her constant complaining. | I was starting to feel irritated by her constant complaining.

frustrated adjective angry because you cannot do something, even though you have tried to do it many times | Sam got frustrated because he couldn’t hit the baseball. xcvxxcvxcv

But there is much more to the system than meets the eye.


The Simple Relational Dictionary

In each of the definitions above, the keywords, including genus are highlighted to give the user an instant understanding of the key word combinations or semantic units that give each word its meaning.

Word Properties

The Simple system contains the following information available to the user at the click of a button. This includes corpus-derived:

Grammatical Colocations (Grammatical Valences), as in the case of:

o angry at someone vs.

o angry about something


Activity based, Contextual Colocations (Semantic Valences), as in the case of a:

o Medical context: wherein a doctor (person) treats patient (person), prescribesmedicine (substance), works in hospital (place), carries a stethoscope(object), wears a lab coat (object), and a

o Legal context: wherein an attorney (person) defends client (person), questionswitness (person) and plaintiff (person), cites laws (abstract objects), addressesjury (group of people), wears suit (object), works in court (place).

Here we see that the Simple system uses verb colocations to relate people, objects, substances and other semantic or word groups to one another; while using preposition and adverb based colocations to relate words by grammatical class (see angry example above), and adjective, adverb and abstract noun colocations to describe properties of, and relations between a large number of words and word classes in English (see examples in Qualities section below).

Context Dependent Morphology

As discussed above, certain members of the restricted set defining vocabulary function as genus words or the parents of large numbers of other words in the system.

These genus words have another unique property – in addition to being used to define and implicitly parent many words in the dictionary, they take on different forms depending on context.

For example, the genus phrasal verb put together becomes add in the context of math, assemble in the context of construction, connect in the context of mechanics, wed in the context of marriage and combine in the context of math . It is used to define, and therefore serves as the parent of many other verbs including combine, join, group, mix, bind, bond, and pool, a number of which are themselves context derived forms,

depending on which sense of the verb is being defined (ie: bind and bond in the context of chemistry).

The same holds true for the genus verb
take which becomes subtract in the context of math, divorce in the context of marriage, steal in the context of crime and which serves as the parent of the verbs separate, remove, withdraw and extract for example.

Genus Word Classes

All words in the Simple Dictionary™ belong to a semantic class or type. Examples include: Actions, Animals, Behaviors, Colors, Feelings, Objects (abstract and concrete), Organizations, Numbers, People, Places, Positions, Senses, Substances, and Thoughts, among others.

Objects and substances are classified by type and subtype:

Furniture: chair (lawn, desk, dining room), table (picnic, drafting, dining room, folding)

Substances: beverages (alcohol, soda, juice, milk), chemical (oxygen, hydrogen, air, water), plant (seeds, grass, vegetables), etc.


Each object and substance can serve as the parent (individually or in combination with other objects and substances) of any number of children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Words can also combine with other words to form more complex terms and concepts. Combining alcohol + beverage for example, becomes alcoholic beverage, a class whose children include beer, wine, and whiskey for example and whose grandchildren (under whiskey for example) become single malt and blended.

Combining drafting + table for example, creates drafting table, a word that belongs to the architectural product class.

Words can also belong to more than one class. Vegetables for example are a plant and food while salt is a molecule, a food, a seasoning, and a powder.

Additional classifications or Word Groups include:

Behaviors such as: confident, shy, flirtatious, friendly, demanding, persistent and curious.

Thoughts (mental constructs) such as: questions, assumptions, beliefs, and concerns.

Qualities are words that describe properties, measures and relations of and between words. They are classified by type, with the two largest classes being those used to describe people, behaviors and feelings, and those used to describe things. They include words such as fast, heavy, near and far, which refer to speed, weight, distance, and proximity respectively, as well as soon, small, young, good, next, few, and above which refer to time, size, age, desirability, sequence, quantity and position, respectively.